I. Language Courses
LC 01 Biblical Hebrew 5 Cr
This course is primarily designed to provide the students basic knowledge about the Biblical Hebrew language. Morphology of various noun groups and verb types are studied in detail. Special attention is given to the prose syntax beginning with characterization of the various types of individual clauses and to the sequences of inter-related clauses. Memorization of a certain amount of biblical Hebrew vocabulary is taken care of. Selected prose texts from the books of Genesis and Exodus will be taken up for reading practice and syntatical analyses.
Bibliography: Davidson, A.B., An Introductory Hebrew Grammar, Edinburg: T.T Clark, 1962. Jouon, Paul, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Rome: Pontifical Institute, 1991. Kautzsche, E., Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar, Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1910. Lambdin, O. Thomas, Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Darton: Longman and Todd, 1973. Weingreen, J., A Practical Grammar for Classical Hebrew, London: Oxford University Press, 1959; Allen P. Ross, Introducing Biblica Hebrew, Orranel Rapids: Baker Academic 2001.
David Stanly Kumar M.
LC 02 Elements of New Testament Greek 5 Cr
The objective of this course is to provide the student with a basic understanding of New Testament Greek grammar, and to build a foundation for further study of the Greek New Testament. The content of the course includes The main features of accidence, grammar and syntax; the alphabet, pronunciation, punctuation; the Greek case system; the Greek verb (tense, aspect, voice, mood); the participle; basic syntax (word order, emphasis, prepositional constructions, purpose and result clauses); parsing. It alsofamiliarizes them with several Greek expressions which are important for biblical and theological studies.
Bibliography: Swetnam, J., An introduction to the Study of the New Testament Greek, Roma: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1998, vol. I: Wenham, J. W.: The Elements of New Testament Greek, Cambridge: University Press, 1965. Blass, F., and Debrunner, A.: A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, Funk, R. W. (trans. and ed.), Cambridge: University Press; Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press, 1961. Moulton, J. H., A Grammar of New Testament Greek I-IV, Edinburgh: T&T Clark Ltd., 1978. Nunn, H.P.V., Elements of New Testament Greek, Cambridge: University Press,1962. ______ Short Syntax of New Testament Greek, Cambridge: University Press, 1951. Danker, F. W. (rev. and ed.): A Greek- English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, (BAGD), 20003. Metzger, B.M., Lexical Aids for Students of New Testament Greek, Edinburgh: T&T Clarke, 1990.
LC 03 Aramaic / Syriac 1 Cr
This course is meant to give the students a working knowledge of and an introduction to the characteristics of biblical Aramaic. This course enables students to acquire the basic skills needed to understand Aramaic words and sentences used in specialized exegetical studies making use of the available (printed and electronic) tools. Students are able to apply to new texts the paradigms and grammatical rules which they learned in the course. The purpose is to enable the students for a grammatical analysis of the Aramaic texts which is relevant for the interpretation of the Biblical and Targumic texts.
Syriac literature is by far the most prodigious of the various Aramaic languages. Its corpus covers poetry, prose, theology, liturgy, hymnody, history, philosophy, science, medicine and natural history. Much of this wealth remains unavailable in critical editions or modern translation. This course enables the students to learn to use grammatical and philological tools of Syriac language.
Bibliography: Rosenthal F., A Grammar of Biblical Aramaic. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz 19956. Alger. F. Johns, A Short Grammar of Biblical Aramaic. Berrien Springs: Andrews University Press, 1972. Beyer, Klaus, The Aramaic language: Its Distribution and subdivisions. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht 1986. Brock, S. (2006).An Introduction to Syriac Studies. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press. Healey, John F. First Studies in Syriac. University of Birmingham/Sheffield Academic Press 1980. Nöldeke, Theodor and Julius E. (1880) Kurzgefasstesyrische Grammatik. Leipzig: T.O. Weigel. [translated to English as Compendious Syriac Grammar, by James A. Crichton. London: Williams &Norgate 1904. 2003. Robinson, Theodore H., Paradigms and exercises in Syriac Grammar. Oxford University Press 1915.
II. Introductory Courses
IC 01 Methodology and Seminar 2 Cr
Methodology for Research: the need for specialization, a proper note-taking, an analysis and synthesis of opinions. The historical-critical method and other approaches to the Bible: diachronic and synchronic. The limitations of the historical-critical method but which as a method is nevertheless valid as it informs the conversation between the world of the text and the world of the reader from which meaning results.
The Seminar presentation aims at training the students in the art of doing exegesis. Having been taught the various methods of exegesis and the principles of hermeneutics, each student prepares a paper for about 8-10 pages on a given text and makes an exegetical exposition of it for twenty minutes followed by the evaluation of other students and the moderator of the session for twenty five minutes.
Bibliography: Collins, R. F., Introduction to the New Testament, New York, 1987. Fitzmyer, J., The Biblical Commission’s Document, The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church: Text and Commentary, Rome, 1995. —————————, AnIntroductory Bibliography for the Study of Scripture, Rome, 1990. Hayes, J. H., and C. R. Holladay, Biblical Exegesis. A Beginner’s Handbook, Atlanta, 1987. Joseph. A. A., Methodology for Research, Bangalore, 1986. Soares-Prabhu, G. M., “The Historical Critical Method. Reflections on Its Relevance for the Study of the Gospels in India Today,” in S. Kuthirakkattel ed., A Biblical Theology for India, Pune, 1992, 2. 3-48. Stock, A., “The Limits of Historical-Critical Exegesis,” Biblical Theology Bulletin 13 (1983) 28-31. White, L. L., “Historical and Literary Criticism: A Theological Response,” Biblical Theology Bulletin 13 (1983) 32-34.
Assisi Saldanha, cssr & Alfred Joseph A.
IC 02 Exegetical Methods and Approaches 1 Cr
This course aims at making a critical exposition, mainly of Synchronic methods such as Narrative Criticism, Rhetorical Criticism and social Scientific Methods and the Contextual Approaches and Perspectives and at training the students on how to use them in their research.
Bibliography: Brown, R. E., Biblical Exegesis and Church Doctrine. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1986. Hayes, J. H., Dictionary of Biblical Interpretation. New York: AbingdonPress, 1999. Porter, S. E., A Handbook to the Exegesis of the New Testament. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2002. Ricoeur, P., Essays on Biblical Interpretation. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1980. Alter, R., The Art of Biblical Narrative, U. S. A.: Basic Books, 1981.Fokkelman, J.P., Reading Biblical Narrative, Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1999. Barton, J., Cambridge Companion to Biblical Interpretation. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1998. Fiorenza, E. S., Sharing Her Word: Feminist Biblical Interpretation in Context. Edinburgh: T & t Clark Ltd, 1998. Russell, L. M., Feminist Interpretation of the Bible, Oxford: Basil Blackwell Publications, 1985. Thottakara, A., Indian Interpretation of the Bible: Festschrift in Honour of Prof. Joseph Pathrapankal, Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, 2000. Arockiadoss, P., “Biblical Interpretation from the Subaltern Cultural Matrix of India,” Vaiharai8 /4 (2003), 3-21. Corley, J., “Methods of Biblical Interpretation a Guide,” Scripture Bulletin 2, (2000).Legrand, L., “New Horizons in Biblical Exegesis,” Indian Theological Studies 19/3 (1984) 205-224. Bergquist, J. A., “Critical Exegesis in the Life of the Indian Churches,” Indian Journal of Theology 18/3 (1969) 101-111. Legrand, L., “Indian Approaches to Bible Interpretation” Word and Worship 37/1 (2004) 39-52, Rowland, C., “Wirkungsgeschichte: Central or Peripheral to Biblical Exegesis,” Scripture Bulletin 36/1(2006) 1-41. Mariaselvam, A., “Biblical Interpretation for India Today,” Word and Worship 39/4 (2006) 216-227.
IC 03 Biblical Hermeneutics 1 Cr
The course has two aspects: one more theoretical and the other more practical. The following areas will be covered: the nature of the Bible as literature and the poetry and narrative literature of the Bible and basic steps in the interpretation of each type from the perspective of the character of this type of literary communication. The three integrated realities of the Author andAuthor Meaning, the Text and Text Meaning and Reader and Reader Meaning will be studied underlying the need for the integration of the three aspects in meaningful hermeneutics (interpretation). Inadequate types of interpretation will be critiqued and the Hermeneutical circle will be explained. Attention will be given to Pre-understanding. Types of narrative to be found in the Gospels will be indicated and characteristics of epistolary literature. The importance of Liturgy and the processes of interpretation will be underlined. The Reader’s role will be taken into account and the reader oriented hermeneutics such as feminist hermeneutics, liberationist hermeneutics, dalit/tribal hermeneutics and the areas of the hermeneutics of suspicion. As the course is only one credit much of this will be done in a very introductory manner.
In the more practical part attention will not be given to the historico – critical methodologies as such. Attention will be given to actual work on poetic texts from the Psalms and Prophets and to narrative texts from the OT and the Gospels. The students will be introduced to sentence flow analysis and to work on texts from text perspectives with indications of the role of historico-critical steps to be taken and the fuller process of interpretation with the dialogue between the Situation Today of Christians and the Text to enable new ways of living and new understanding of Christian beliefs.
Bibliography: Brown, Raymond, Schneiders, Sandra, “Hermeneutics”, NJBC, 1146-65. Brown, Raymond, The Critical Meaning of the Bible. How a Modern Reading of the Bible Challenges the Christian, the Church and the Churches. Marwah: Paulist Press, 1981. Cotterell Peter, Turner, M., Linguistics and Biblical Interpretation, Dover Grove: Intervarsity Press, 1989. Ferguson, D. S. Biblical Hermeneutics: An Introduction, Nashville: John Knox, 1986. Fitzmyer, Joseph, A., The Biblical Commission’s Document “The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church” Text and Commentary, Rome: EditricePontificoBiblico, 1995. Gillingham, S. E., One Bible,Many Voices: Different Approaches to Biblicaltudies, London: SPCK, 1998. Green, Joel, B., Hearing the New Testament, Strategiesfor Interpretation, Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1995. McEvenue, Sean, Interpretation and the Bible: Essays on Truth in Literature, Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1994. Nowland, Christopher, Corner Mark, Liberating Exegesis: The Challenge of Liberation Theology to Biblical Studies, London: SPCK, 1991. Padilla, C. Rene, “ The Interpreted Word: Reflections on Contextual Hermeneutics”, A Guide to Contemporary Hermenetics. Major Trends in Biblical Interpretation, (ed.), D. K. McKim, Grand Rapids: Wm. E. Eerdmans, 1986, 297-308. (The other Articles also). Powell, Mark Allan, What is Narrative Criticism, London: SPCK, 1993. Schneiders, Sandra, M., The Revelatory Text: Interpreting the New Testament as Sacred Scripture, Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1999. Sugirtharajah, R. S., (ed.), Voices from the Margin: Interpreting the Bible in the Third World, Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1991.
Articles in the following: Anchor Bible Dictionary: (ABD). Hermeneutics, B. C. Lategan, III, 149-54.History of Biblical Criticism, W. Baird, I, 726-36.History of Biblical Hermeneutics, W. G. Jeanrond, III, 433-43.History of Interpretation, J. W. Rogerson, III, 425-33
IC 04 Textual Criticism (Old and New Testament) 1 Cr
Writing materials, the scribes and their techniques of writing in antiquity.The Samaritan Pentateuch, the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Septuagint and the Massoretic Text.The importance of the DSS in evaluating the LXX vis-à-vis MT.The Old Versions and Targums.
The method of textual criticism: massoraparva, massora magna, qere and ketib, perpetual qere, scribal corrections, etc. Reading of the massoraparva and modern critical apparatus of the BHS. The important witnesses to the text of the N. T.: papyri, uncials, minuscules, palimpsets and lectionaries. Scriptio continua and punctuation, contractions and helps for readers of N. T. manuscripts. Ancient versions of the N. T.: Old Latin, Syriac, the Vulgate and the Peshitta, Coptic and others. Patristic quotations and their importance. N. T. families of manuscripts. A history of research on the text of the N.T. Differences in presentation of the standard text in GNT4and NA27.Transmission of the text: causes of textual corruption in the O. T. and the N. T. Reading of the text critical apparatus in the GNT4and NA27.Basic methodological principles of N. T. textual criticism. The practice of N. T. textual criticism: a test case.
Bibliography: Aland, K., and B. Aland, The Text of the New Testament. An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism (trans. E. F. Rhodes), Grand Rapids, MI, 1987. Epp, E. J., “Textual Criticism (NT),” in Anchor Bible Dictionary, 6.412-435. Klein, R. W., Textual Criticism of the OT – The Septuagint after Qumran, Guides to Biblical Scholarship, OT Series 4, Philadelphia, 1974. McCarter, P. K., Textual Criticism, Recovering the Text of the Hebrew Bible, Guides to Biblical Scholarship, OT Series 11, Philadelphia, 1986.Metzger, B. M., A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. A Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament, London/New York, 1971; corr. Ed. 1975. —————————, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration, New York, 21968. Tov, E., Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible, Minneapolis, 1992. Wonneberger, R., Understanding BHS – A Manual for the Users of BibliaHebraicaStuttgartensia, Rome, 1990.Würthwein, E., The Text of the OT, Stuttgart, 1988.
Assisi Saldanha, cssr
IC 06 Biblical Archeology 1 Cr
Biblical Archaeology is approached as a contemporary science in order to discover its contribution and significance to the understanding and interpretation of the Bible. After dealing with the history of Biblical Archaeology, the students are introducedto its methods and techniques. Excavation studies made in the Ancient Near Eastern countries especially in the land of Israel are investigated in order to highlight their contribution to Biblical Interpretation. A few relevant texts from the First and Second Testaments are studied in the light of the archaeological discoveries. The value and limitations of archaeology to Biblical Interpretation are also discussed. The course includes a guided visit to the Bible Museum at St. Peter’s and further facilitated by viewing appropriate archeological films and slid shows whenever it is necessary during the course.
Bibliography: Dever, W.G., “Archaeology: Syro-Palestinian and Biblical”, ABD vol.1, pp.354-367. Freedman, D.N., and Greenfield, J.C., (eds.), New Directions in Biblical Archaeology, NY: Garden City, 1969. Grant, E., The Haverford Symposium on Archaeology and the Bible, New Haven, 1938. Lance, H. D., The Old Testament and the Archaeologist, Philadelphia, 1981. North, R. and King, P.J., “Biblical Archaeology”, in R.E.Brown et al., (eds.) The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1992, pp.1196-1218
David Stanly Kumar
IC 08 The Ancient Near Eastern Texts 1 Cr
The Ancient Near East has often been called the ‘cradle of civilization.’ But until recent archaeological discoveries we knew little of the beliefs of the early people. Now we are able to appreciate the richness of the Ancient Near Eastern literature, which serves as window on both their own culture and the cultures of their neighbors. The influence of the Ancient Near Eastern countries on Israel and on the Bible in particular is so significant that the religious life of Israel cannot be studied in isolation. In view of preparing the students for a better understanding the Bible, especially of the OT, this course deals with the historical, legal, mythological, liturgical, and secular texts from the Ancient Near East. Hence, the purposeof the course is to help the students to take advantage of all that theses traditions have to offer to understand Israel and its culture, but not to blur the distinction between all the cultures in the world of the Bible, or to imply that these traditions are valuable only insofar as they relate to the Bible. Our purpose is also not to destroy the distinctiveness of the Bible by overstating its similarity with the traditions of surrounding cultures.
Bibliography: Albright, W.F., Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan, London, Athlone Press, 1968. Beckman, C.M., Hittite Myth, Atlanta, Scholars Press, 1990. Clark, R.T.R., Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt, London, Thames and Hudson, 1978. Clifford, R.J., The Cosmic Mountain in Canaan and the Old Testament, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1972; Creation Accounts in the Ancient Near East and in the Bible, Washington, The Catholic Association of America, 1994. Cross, F.M., Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1973. Gaster, T.H., Thespis: Ritual, Myth and Drama in the Ancient Near East, New York, Harper Torchbooks, 1966. Gray, J., Near Eastern Mythology, Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1969. Heidel, A., The Babylonian Genesis: The Story of Creation, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 21951; The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1975. James, E.O., Myth and Ritual in the Ancient Near East, London, Thames and Hudson, 1958. Kramer, S.N., Sumerian Mythology, New York, Harper Torchbooks, 1961. Matthews, V.H., and D.C. Benjamin, Old Testament Parallels: Laws and Stories from the Ancient Near East, New York, Paulist Press, 2006. Moran, W.L., “The Epic of Gilgamesh: A Document of Ancient Humanism,” in R.S. Hendel (ed.), The Most Magic Word: Essays on Babylonian and Biblical Literature, Washington, The Catholic Biblical Association of America, 2002, 5-20. Pritchard, J.B. (ed.), The Ancient Near Eastern Texts: Relating to the Old Testament, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 1969. Walls, N.H., The Goddess Anat in Ugaritic Myth, Atlanta, Scholars Press, 1992. Walton, J.H., Ancient Near Eastern Thought and the Old Testament. Introducing the Conceptual World of the Hebrew Bible, Grand Rapids, Baker Academic, 2006.
Joseph Titus, P.
IC 11 History of the Old Testament 1 Cr
Joseph Titus P.
IC 12 Indian Exegesis and Hermeneutics 1 Cr
The course introduces to the students the field of Indian Exegesis and Hermeneutics. It deals with the Global and local settings, makes a survey of attempts made so far towards the Indian reading of the Bible and studies the diverse methods and principles of Indian Exegesis and Hermeneutics as enunciated by Indian exegetes and theologians. The course concludes with some challenging questions and proposals for further study and research.
Appasamy, A. J., The Gospel and India’s Heritage. London: SPCK, 1942; A. Amaladass, Indian Exegesis: Hindu-Buddhist Hermeneutics, Chennai: Satya Nilayam, 2003; Manikkam, Thomas. “Toward an Indian Hermeneutics of the Bible,” Jeevadhara 12 (1982), 94-104; Soares-Prabhu, G., “Towards an Indian Interpretation of the Bible,” in Collected Writings of George M. Soares-Prabhu, vol. 4: Theology of Liberation: An Indian Biblical Perspective, Pune: JDV, 2001, 3-13; ————————,”Commitment and Conversion: A Biblical Hermeneutic for India Today,” in Collected Writings of George M. Soares-Prabhu, vol. 4, 24-52; ———————, “The Historical Critical Method: Reflections on its Relevance for the Study of the Gospels in India Today,” in M. Amaladoss et al. (eds.), Theologizing in India, Bangalore: TPI, 1981, 314-67; Legrand, L., “Twenty Years of Biblical Renewal in India,” Vidyajyoti 47/10 (1983), 484-94; ————————, The Word is Near You, vols. 1-4; Sugirtharajah, R. S. “Introduction, and Some Thoughtson Asian Biblical Hermeneutics,” Biblical Interpretation 2/3 (1994), 251-63; ————————, The Bible and the Third World: Precolonial, Colonial and Postcolonial Encounters, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. On Biblical Interpretation and the Indian Context: Bible Bhashyam 10/1 (1984); Jeevadhara 25/146 (1995); Word and Worship 41/2, 5 (March-April, Sep-Oct 2008).
IC 14 Judaism (Palestinian) 1 Cr
The return from the ‘Exile’ (Ca. 538 B.C.E.) marked a ‘New Age’ for the Chosen People of Israel. This second exodus gave them ‘Jewish’ identity. It was characterized by a ‘new’ understanding of their existence. The covenantal beliefs and practices found in the TaNaK were explored and explained at the background of their experience. They resulted in a number of formulations of Jewish principles of faith. The role of ‘Rabbis’ was instrumental in this process. This process in Palestine gave the immediate background to Jesus and Christianity. This course aims at the understanding of the historical background of Palestinian Judaism, its characteristics, literature, beliefs and its relevance to Christianity. This course limits its purview from the Second Temple Period (Ca. 535 B.C.E.) to the Second Jewish Revolt (135 C.E.).
Bibliography: McNamara, M., Palestinian Judaism, Delaware: Michael Glazier, 1983; Martin, B., History of Judaism, Oxford: Basil Bakckwell Publications, 1974; Neusner, J., Introduction to Judaism: A Textbook and Reader, Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press., 1992; Flusser, D. and Yadan, A., Judaism of the Second Temple Period: Qumran and Apocalypticism, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Company, 2007; Neusner, J., Midrash in Context: Exegesis in Formative Judaism, Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1983; Sanders, E. P., Jesus and Judaism, London: Scm Press Ltd., 1985; Donfried, K. P. and Richardson, P., Judaism and Christianity in First-Century Rome, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Company, 1998; Bronson, D. B., “Paul and Apocalyptic Judaism,” Journal of Biblical Literature 83(1964) 03: 287-292; Relevant Encyclopedias & Dictionaries.
IC 15 Patristic Interpretation 1 Cr
The course on Patristic Interpretation invites the students to look at the earliest methods and purpose of the interpretation of the Bible by the Fathers of the Church. The approach of the Fathers to the Bible, their faith and pastoral oriented purpose behind the interpretation, their various methods and level of exegesis are explained. The two great ancient schools of exegesis, Alexandria and Antioch, are given enough attention. Further a few case-studies are taken into consideration.
Bibliography: M. Simonetti, Biblical Interpretation in the Early Church: An Historical Introduction to Patristic Exegesis, A.H. John Tr., Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1994; H.A. Christopher, Reading Scripture with the Church Fathers, Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1998; T.W. Joseph, Biblical Interpretation, Message of the Fathers of the Church – 9, Wilmington: Michael Glazier, 1988; Blowers, M. Paul et al., eds., In Dominico Eloquio: Essays on Patristic Exegesis in Honor of Robert Louis Wilken, Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2002; G. Bray, Biblical Interpretation: Past & Present, Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 77-128, 1996; J.H. Hayes, Carl R. Holladay, Biblical Exegesis: A Beginner’s Handbook, Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1987; D.Z. Zaharopoulos, Theodore of Mopsuestiaon the Bible: A Study of his Old Testament Exegesis, New York: Paulist Press, 1989; R.N. Longenecker, Biblical Exegesis in the Apostolic Period, Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1999; F. Sadowski, ed., The Fathers on the Bible: Selected Readings, New York: Alba House, 1987; F.M. Young, Biblical Exegesis and the Formation of Christian Culture, Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers Inc., 2002.
Xavier Terrence T.
III. Exegetical and Theological Courses
ET 01 Hebrew Texts 1 Cr
The course aims at a thorough study of the Hebrew Text of the 37th chapter of the Book of Ezekiel, in particular the Vision of Dry Bones, vv, 1-14. Special attention will be paid to the various meanings of the Hebrew word ruah that appears in the text. The students will be drilled into reading aloud the Hebrew text. The students will be expected to translate the Hebrew text as literally as possible, and not merely to repeat the translation of the NRSV or NJB. Stress will be laid in parsing the various nominal and verbal forms as well as on apocopated forms of the verb, on construct chains and on syntax.
Bibliography: Brown-Driver-Briggs (Gesenius), A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. John Joseph Owens, Analytical Key to the Old Testament, Baker House, Michigan 2000. Koehler Baumgartner: The New Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, E.J. Brill, Leiden, New York, 2 vols, 1994-95.
Rui de Menezes
ET 02 Greek Texts 1 Cr
This course handles selected passages from different New Testament books. The purpose is to show that the grammatical analysis of the Greek text can be relevant for the interpretation of the Biblical and Early Christian texts. This course aims to teach the students to use grammatical and philological tools. They are expected to acquire the attitude of working with texts in original languages as much as possible. Students are able to compare translations with the original texts and to compare translations with each other and to analyze the differences. This course enables students to acquire the basic skills needed to understand Greek syntaxes used in specialized exegetical studies making use of the available (printed and electronic) tools. Students are able to apply to new texts the paradigms and grammatical rules which they have learned
Bibliography: H. W. Smyth, Greek Grammar, revised by Gordon M. Messing. Harvard University Press, 1984; F. Blass, A. Debrunner, and R. Funk, A Greek grammar of the New Testament and other early Christian literature. University of Chicago Press, 1961; M. Zerwick, Biblical Greek Illustrated By Examples, translated from the Latin by Joseph Smith, S.J..Roma. Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1994. M. Zerwick and M. Grosvenor, A Grammatical Analysis of the Greek New Testament, Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1981; D. B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament, Zondervan 1997.
ET 03 Exegesis of the O.T. 2 Cr
The objective of the course is to read and analyse the texts linked with the different stages of the development of a jewish specific theology from the exile, till the end of the persian period.
First, the experience of the Golah in Babylone leads the priests and the scribes to a new theological reflexion during the exileperiod. Two main movements and “theological schools” can be identified : a deuteronomist “movement”, and a priestly movement, linked with two different traditions : The Priestly (P) tradition (Gn 1-Lv 16) and the Deuteronomist (Dtr) tradition (Dt 1–Jos 23).
During the 5th century, the “P” and the “Dtr” traditions are linked to build an Hexateuch, and then a Pentateuch - a Torah.
Finally, later supplements are brought to this Torah in the 4th century, particularly the book of Numbers in its later composition.
ET 04 Exegesis of the New Testament 2 Cr
The Exegetical study of selected portions of the Gospel of Mark will bring out the rhetorical and theological thrust of the Gospel.
Bibliography: The Gospel of Mark has recovered its leading place in New Testament studies and Commentaries on Mk are available in the main series in English, German and French. Some old commentaries are still valuable; Gould (1896), Swete (1902), Wellhausen (1909). Lagrange (1910), Loisy (1912), Huby (1937), Taylor (1952), Granfield (1957), Nineham (1963). For recent narratological and rhetorical approach, see C.Focant, L’Evangile selon Marc, CBNT 2, Paris: Cerf, 2004; B, Standaert, Evangile Selon Marc Commentaire, 3 columes, EB 61, Pende:2010
L. Legrand, mep
ET 05 Exegesis of the OT / NT (Elective) 1 Cr
The students are offered additional courses of exegesis both in the Old and the New Testaments and the choice is determined by their domain of specialization, Old or New Testament.
Old Testament- Genesis
The purpose of the course is to help the students to acquire adequate knowledge of Biblical exegesis in the Old Testament. Biblical exegesis is a systematic process by which a person arrives at a reasonable and coherent sense of the meaning and message of a biblical passage. In the process of exegesis, a passage must be viewed in its historical and grammatical context with its time/purpose of writing taken into account. This is often accommodated by asking: Who wrote the text, and who is the intended readership? What is the context of the text, i.e. how does it fit in the author’s larger thought process, purpose, or argument in the chapter and book where it resides? Is the choice of words, wording, or word order significant in this particular passage? Why was the text written (e.g. to correct, encourage, or explain, etc.)? When was the text written? By way of example, Genesis 15 is chosen and analyzed with the aim of introducing the principles of exegesis to the students.
Bibliography: Commentaries: Coats, G.W., Genesis with an Introduction to Narrative Literature, Grand Rapids, W.B. Eerdmans, 1987. Fretheim, T.E., “The Book of Genesis,” L.E. Keck, (ed.), The New Interpreter’s Bible, 12 vols., Nashville, Abingdon Press, 1994-2002, vol.1, 321-674. Gowan, D.E., Genesis 1-11, Edinburgh, Handsel Press, 1988. Hamilton, V.P., The Book of Genesis Chaps.1-17, Grand Rapids, W.B. Eerdmans, 1990. Sarna, N.M., Genesis, Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society, 1989. Skinner, J., A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Genesis, ICC, Edinburgh, T & T Clark, 1910. Speiser, E.A., Genesis, New York, Doubleday, 1964. Von Rad, G., Genesis: A Commentary, London, SCM Press, 1961. Westermann, C., Genesis 1-11: A Commentary, Minneapolis, Augsburg Publishing House, 1987. Books: Blenkinsopp, J., The Pentateuch, New York, Doubleday, 1992. Carr, D. M., Reading the Fractures of Genesis, Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1996. Pury, A. de, “Abraham: The Priestly Writer’s “Ecumenical” Ancestor,” in S. L. McKenzie et T. Römer (ed.), Rethinking the Foundations. Historiography in the Ancient World and in the Bible. Essays in Honour of John Van Seters (BZAW 294), Berlin - New York: de Gruyter, 2000, pp. 163-181. Van Seters, J., Abraham in History and Tradition, New Haven - London: Yale University Press, 1975; Prologue to History. The Yahwist as Historian in Genesis, Zürich: Theologischer Verlag, 1992; The Pentateuch: A Social Science Commentary, Sheffield, Sheffield Academic Press, 1999. Articles: Anbar, M., “Genesis 15: a Conflation of Two Deuteronomic Narratives,” JBL 101 (1982) 39-55. Begg, C.T., “Rereading of the Animal Rite of Genesis 15 in Early Jewish Narratives,” CBQ 50 (1988) 36-46. Blenkinsopp, J., “Abraham as Paradigm in the Priestly History of Genesis,” JBL 128/2 (2009) 225-241. Blum, E., “The Literary Connection between the Books of Genesis and Exodus and the End of the Book of Joshua,” in T. B. Dozeman et K. Schmid (ed.), A Farewell to the Yahwist? The Composition of the Pentateuch in Recent European Interpretation (SBL Symposium Series 34), Atlanta, Society of Biblical Literature, 2006, 89-106. Hunter, A. G., “Father Abraham: A Structural and Theological Study of the Yahwist’s Presentation of the Abraham Material,” JSOT 35 (1986) 3-27. Richards, R.R., “Genesis 15: an exercise in Translation Principles,” Bible Translator 28 (1977) 213-219.
Joseph Titus P.
New Testament Pre-Pauline Element in 1Thessalonians 1
The Pre-Pauline Material in 1 Thess 1/1-10 is studied against the cultural, social and religious background of Thessalonica at the time of Paul. The Exegetical Analysis of the text highlights Paul’s investiveness in presting the Gospel to the Thessalonians.
C. Edson, “Cults of Thessalonica (Macedonia III),” HTR 41/3 (1948): 153-204; J. Munck, “1Thess 1:9-10 and the Missionary Preaching of Paul,” NTS 9 (1963): 95-110; J. R. Harrison “Pauland Imperial Gospel at Thessaloniki,” JSNT 25/1 (2002): 71-96; I. Havener, “The Pre-Pauline Christological Credal Formulae of 1Thessalonians,” in SBL 1981 Seminar Papers, 105-128; P. É. Langevin, La seigneurie de Jésus dans quelques textes prépauliniens, STD Thesis; Rome: Pontifical Gregorian University, 1965; D. Luckensmeyer, The Eschatology of First Thessalonians, NTOA 71; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2009; C. A. Wanamaker, The Epistles to the Thessalonians: A Commentary on the Greek Text, NIGTC; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990; K. P. Donfried, Paul, Thessalonica and Christianity, London: T&T Clark, 2002; R. S. Ascough, Paul’s Macedonian Associations: The Social Context of Philippians and 1Thessalonians, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003; B. Rigaux, Saint Paul: Les épîtres aux Thessaloniciens. Paris, du Cerf, 1956; K. P. Donfried and J. Beutler (eds.), The Thessalonian Debate: Methodological Discord or Methodological Synthesis? Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000; J. A. D. Wiema and S. E. Porter, An Annotated Bibliography of 1 and 2 Thessalonians (NTTS 26; Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1998.
ET 06 Theology of the O. T. 2 Cr
The purpose of the course is to help the students to acquire adequate knowledge of Biblical exegesis in the Old Testament. Exegesis is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, especially a religious text. Biblical exegesis is a systematic process by which a person arrives at a reasonable and coherent sense of the meaning and message of a biblical passage. Ideally, an understanding of the original texts (Hebrew and Greek) is required. In the process of exegesis, a passage must be viewed in its historical and grammatical context with its time/purpose of writing taken into account. This is often accommodated by asking: Who wrote the text, and who is the intended readership? What is the context of the text, i.e. how does it fit in the author’s larger thoughtprocess, purpose, or argument in the chapter and book where it resides? Is the choice of words, wording, or word order significant in this particular passage? Why was the text written (e.g. to correct, encourage, or explain, etc.)? When was the text written? Hence exegesis includes a wide range of critical disciplines: textual criticism is the investigation into the history and origins of the text, but exegesis may include the study of the historical and cultural backgrounds for the author, the text, and the original audience. Other analysis includes classification of the type of literary genres present in the text, and an analysis of grammatical and syntactical features in the text itself. In Biblical exegesis, the opposite of exegesis (“to draw out”) is eisegesis (“to draw in”). Eisegesis, often used as a derogatory term, implies that the reader is importing their own meaning into the text. Exegesis is an attempt to discover the meaning of the text objectively, while eisegesis is importing a subjective meaning into the text. By way of example, Genesis 17 is chosen and analyzed with the aim of introducing the principles of exegesis to the students.
Bibliography: Bautch, R.J., “An Appraisal of Abraham’s Role in Postexilic Covenants,” CBQ 71/1 (2009) 42-63.Blenkinsopp, J., “Abraham as Paradigm in the Priestly History of Genesis,” JBL 128/2 (2009) 225-241. Clements, R., Abraham and David, London, SCM Press, 1967. Goldingday, J., “The Significance of Circumcision,” JSOT 88, 2000, 3-18. Gosse, B., “Abraham and David,” JSOT 34/1 (2009) 25-31. Gosse, B., “Abraham comme figure de substitution à la royauté davidique et sa dimension international à l’époque postexilique,” Theoforum 33 (2002) 163-186. Gruneberg, G.K.N., “Abraham Blessing and the Nations,” Biblica 86 (2005) 554-556. Hepner, G., “The Begettings of Terah and the Structure of Genesis and the Tetrateuch: A Zadokite Polemic,” Revue Biblique 111 (2004) 31-60. Hunter, A. G., “Father Abraham: A Structural and Theological Study of the Yahwist’s Presentation of the Abraham Material,” JSOT 35 (1986) 3-27. Janzen, J.G., Abraham and all the Families of the Earth: Gen 12-50, Michigan, W.B. Eerdmans, 1993. McCarthy, D.J., “ThreeCovenants in Genesis,” CBQ 26 (1964) 179. Pury, A. de, “Genèse 12-36,” in T. Römer, J.-D. Macchi et C. Nihan (ed.), Introduction à l’Ancien Testament (Le Monde de la Bible 49), Genève: Labor et Fides, 2004, pp. 134-156 ; “Abraham: The Priestly Writer’s ‘Ecumenical” Ancestor’,” in S. L. McKenzie et T. Römer (ed.), Rethinking the Foundations. Historiography in the Ancient World and in the Bible. Essays in Honour of John Van Seters (BZAW 294), Berlin - New York: de Gruyter, 2000, pp. 163-181. Tournay, R. J., “Genèse de la triade ‘Abraham-Isaac-Jacob’,” RB 103, 1996, pp. 321-336. Van Seters, J., Abraham in History and Tradition, New Haven - London: Yale University Press, 1975. Weela, E.A., “Abraham Stories: History and Faith,” Biblical Theology Bulletin (1980). Wenham, G.J., Genesis 1-15, WBC, Dallas, Word Books, 1987. Westermann, C., Genesis 1-11: A Commentary, Minneapolis, Augsburg Publishing House, 1987. Williamson, P. R., Abraham, Israel and the Nations. The Patriarchal Promise and Its Covenantal Development in Genesis (JSOT.S 315), Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. Wilson, R. R., Genealogy and History in the Biblical World, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. Wolley, L., Abraham: Recent Discoveries and Hebrew Origins, London, Faber and Faber, 1935. Wyatt, N., “Circumcision and Circumstance: Male Genital Mutilations in Ancient Israel and Ugarit,” JSOT 33.4, 2009, pp. 405-431. Zakovitch, Y., The Exodus from Ur of the Chaldeans: A Chapter in Literary Archaeology, Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1999.
Joseph Titus P.
ET 08 Biblical Theology of Mission 1 Cr
The Course on Mission in the Synoptic Gospels is made of two parts spread over the two years of the M.Th Programme: 1. Mission of Galilean Jesus 2. Mission of Risen Lord (in Resurrection accounts of the Synoptic Gospels). These two parts must be well distinguished so that they may be better related. They represent the two aspects of the Christ event: the pre-paschal and the post-paschal aspects or dimensions. The two aspects are complementary and should be mutually understood. The Course for 2011-2012 deals with Part 1: Mission of Galilean Jesus.
General Bibliography: J. Jeremias, Jesus’ Promise to the Nations (SBT 24), London: SCM Press, 1958; F. Hahn, Mission in the New Testament, (SBT 47), London: SCM, 1965; J.H. Kahne, Christian Missions in Biblical Perspectives, Grand Rapids: Baker House, 1976; G.W. Peters, A Biblical Theology of Missions, Chicago: Moody Press, 1972; L. Legrand, J. Pathrapanckal and M. Vellanickal, Good News and Witness. The New Testament Understanding of Evangelization, Bangalore: TPI, 1973; L. Legrand, Mission in the Bible. Unity and Plurality, Pune: Ishvani Publications 1992 (=NY:Orbis, 1990), pp. 36-83; various articles in My Word is near you, vol 1-3, Bangalore: St Peter’s Pontifical Institute, 2001-2004; D. Senior-C. Stuhlmuller, Biblical Foundations for Missions, London: SCM Press, 1983; D. J. Bosch, Transforming Mission, New York: Orbis Books, 1991, 1-180; W.J. Larkin and J.F. Williams (ed.), Mission in the New Testament. An Evangelical Approach, New York: Orbis Books, 1999; George Soares Prabhu, various articles in the 4 volumes of Collected Writings of George M. Soares Prabhu, Pune:Jnana-Depa Vidyapeeth, 1999-2003.
L. Legrand, mep
Aspects of Biblical Apostolate
ABA 01 Inter Scriptural Hermeneutics 1 Cr
The Eastern and Western approaches to God-experience: Polarity and Complementarity. The Structure of mystical introspection. The One Logos and many Scriptures. Towards an Inter-Scriptural hermeneutics. Two models:John’s Gospel and the Bhagavad Gita & MeisterEckhart and the Upanishads. Inter-Scriptural Hermeneutics: basic to Indian Theology.
Sebastian Painadath sj, A.M. Joseph Ethakuzhy &
Terence Farias,, sj
Courses proper to the Alternative Cycle
IC 05 Biblical Geography 1 Cr
IC 07 Qumran Literature 1 Cr
IC 10 Hellenistic Judaism 1 Cr
IC 13 Sociological Approach to the Bible 1 Cr
ET 07 Theology of the NT 2 Cr
ABA 02 Theory and Practice of Translation 1 Cr